ように・ために

What is the difference between ように and ために?
Example sentences are as below.

Depending on the form of the preceding verb 見える/見る, you should distinguish between ように/ために properly.
The following figure illustrates the difference.

ように describes the change of the state of the target object(“the stars”). ために modifies the meaning of the verb “watch”.

見る is a volitional verb, 見える is a non-volitional verb.

ために is used together with volitional verbs,
ように is used with non-volitional verbs.

The following sentence describes “私” watch stars by his/her intention.

見る is a volitional verb, so you have to specify the subject “私” as the person having the volition. ために is used with this kind of verbs.

The following describes the state of the stars, it doesn’t mean anybody’s intention.

見える is non-volitional, so you don’t have to specify the person who watches the stars. ように is used with this kind of verbs.

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