に and で

The difference between に and で of the following  examples seems confusing.

東京 住む。 I live in Tokyo.
東京 観光する。 I do sightseeing in Tokyo.

At first, you should distinguish “place of activity(PA)” and “place of target(PT)”.

Imagine that you are in Osaka, and send a package to Tokyo. In this case, there are two places, Osaka and Tokyo. Osaka is the place of the activity, Tokyo is the activity’s target.

The fundamental rule is:

   “で” marks PA
   “に” marks PT

For example,

大阪 東京 電話をかける。

You are in Osaka, call up somebody in Tokyo.

Some verbs take no PT.

   東京 観光する。 I do sightseeing in Tokyo.

In this case, Tokyo is the place of the activity “観光”, so is used for marking 東京 as a PA.

However, it seems like the same in “東京住む”, but the correct particle for 住む is not “”, but “”.
It should be confusing. Why?

This is an exception of the rule “で marks PA”.

 

You have to distinguish “state verbs” and “action verbs”.

住む is a state verb. Usually it will not end in near future.
観光する is an action verb. Usually it will end in near future.

State verbs take に for marking the place(PA), instead of で. This exception can also be applied in other state verbs like いる, ある.

東京タワーは東京 ある。 Tokyo Tower is in Tokyo.
彼は大阪 います。He is in Osaka.
私は京都 住んでいます。 I live in Kyoto.

There is one more exception, but the principle is the same.
Why the particle of the following sentence is で?

花火大会が東京 ある。 A fireworks festival is going to be held in Tokyo.

Because 花火大会(a fireworks festival) is a temporal event. It will end within several hours. Then, the verb ある in this context don’t mean “state”, it is an action verb. That’s why で is correct.

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